Sugarloaf Key Bat Tower
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Bat Tower-Sugarloaf Key
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
Historic bat tower on Lower Sugarloaf Key, Florida
Sugarloaf Key Bat Tower is located in Florida
Location     Monroe County, Florida
Nearest city     Key West, Florida
Coordinates     24°38′59.95″N 81°34′21.62″WCoordinates: 24°38′59.95″N 81°34′21.62″W
Built     1929
NRHP Reference #     82002377[1]
Added to NRHP     May 13, 1982
The Sugarloaf Key Bat Tower, also known as the Perky Bat Tower, is a historic site in Monroe County, Florida, United States. It is located a mile northwest of U.S. 1 on Lower Sugarloaf Key at mile marker 17. On May 13, 1982, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.
    1 History
    2 Today
    3 Cultural references
    4 References
    5 External links
The tower was built in 1929 by Richter Clyde Perky, a fish lodge owner, to control the mosquito problem in the Lower Keys.[2] However, when the bats were put in, they supposedly flew away, never to return. The tower was built from plans purchased from a Charles Campbell of Texas, an early pioneer of bat studies. The Hygiostatic Bat Roost, as Campbell called it, was intended to be a roost for bats that would eat the mosquitoes which spread malaria.
There are three Campbell bat towers still standing (out of an original fourteen world-wide) in the United States: the Perky Tower; one in Comfort, Texas; and one at the Shangri-La Gardens in Orange, Texas. At least one of the Texas towers has been internally reconstructed so that bats currently roost in it. The ruins of a fourth Campbell tower, in Temple Terrace, Florida, burned in 1979 and now consists of the concrete base and legs. Temple Terrace is in the process of rebuilding their 1924 tower.
Cultural references
Parade float during Fantasy Fest, depicting the historic bat tower complete with bats and mosquitoes flying around it, October 2008
    The Bat Tower is used as a setting in the Tim Dorsey novel Torpedo Juice.

Sugarloaf Key Bat Tower

Comfort, Texas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Comfort, Texas
Historic downtown Comfort
Location of Comfort, Texas
Coordinates: 29°58′10″N 98°54′26″WCoordinates: 29°58′10″N 98°54′26″W
Country     United States
State     Texas
County     Kendall
 • Total     3.2 sq mi (8.3 km2)
 • Land     3.2 sq mi (8.3 km2)
 • Water     0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation     1,427 ft (435 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total     2,363
 • Density     735.6/sq mi (284.0/km2)
Time zone     Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)     CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code     78013
Area code(s)     830
FIPS code     48-16228[1]
GNIS feature ID     1333183[2]
Comfort is a census-designated place (CDP) in Kendall County, Texas, United States. The population was 2,363 at the 2010 census. It is part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area.
    1 History
        1.1 Darmstadt Society of Forty
    2 Geography
    3 Demographics
    4 Education
    5 Notable people
    6 References
    7 External links
Treue der Union monument in Comfort
Steves’ hygieostatic bat roost
Comfort was established in 1854 by German immigrants, who were Freethinkers and abolitionists.[3] Ernst Hermann Altgelt, at the age of 22, is credited with surveying and measuring the lots that would later be sold to the incoming German immigrants.[4] He stayed and married Emma (Murck) Altgelt, and they raised their nine children in the township of Comfort. Fritz and Betty Holekamp built the first house in Comfort having started construction before Comfort’s official founding on September 3, 1854.[5] The first churches were not established in Comfort until 1900.[6] After some controversy, a cenotaph honoring “the Founding Freethinkers” was dedicated on November 2, 2002.[7]
The downtown area is possibly one of the most well-preserved historic business districts in Texas. There are well over 100 structures in the area dating back to the 19th century, and seven of them were designed by the noted architect Alfred Giles.[8] Mr. Giles lived in San Antonio, and he would ride horses, the stagecoach, and later the train to check his building sites in Comfort.[9] Most of the population today is composed of descendants of those original pioneer families of the 1850s and the 1860s.[10]
Comfort is also known for a tragic event that took place during the Civil War. The Treue der Union Monument (“Loyalty to the Union”) was dedicated in honor of 35 men who died at the Battle of the Nueces, which took place because they opposed the state’s secession from the Union. The German settlers were killed on their way to Mexico during the Civil War. They were attacked by Confederate forces near Brackettville on August 10, 1862. The bodies were not buried and the bones were retrieved and placed here in 1865. The monument was erected in 1866.[11][12]
In 1918, Albert Steves erected a bat roost on his family farm in Comfort. This roost was built to attract bats in an effort to control mosquito populations by natural means. It was originally researched and developed by Dr. Charles Agustus Rosenheimer Campbell of San Antonio. The idea was to use bats against malaria carrying mosquitos. At one time, there were sixteen bat roosts built in the United States and Europe, of which only two sites now remain — one in Comfort and one in the Florida Keys.[13] [14]
Darmstadt Society of Forty
Some of the early settlers in Comfort migrated from the collapsed Fisher-Miller Land Grant experimental colonies of the Darmstadt Society of Forty.
For more details on this topic, see List of Darmstadt Society of Forty.
Comfort is located at 29°58′10″N 98°54′26″W (29.969566, -98.907087).[15] This is 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Boerne, 45 miles (72 km) northwest of Downtown San Antonio, and 72 miles (116 km) west of Austin. The town is at the junction of I-10 and State HWY 87. I-10 has two exits for Comfort and HWY 87 takes you to Fredericksburg if you go north.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.2 square miles (8.3 km2), of which, 3.2 square miles (8.3 km2) of it is land and 0.31% is water.
As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 2,358 people, 799 households, and 603 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 735.6 people per square mile (283.6/km2). There were 917 housing units at an average density of 286.1 per square mile (110.3/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 76.34% White, 0.51% African American, 1.19% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 18.70% from other races, and 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 45.00% of the population.
There were 799 households out of which 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.7% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.5% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $28,799, and the median income for a family was $29,295. Males had a median income of $20,972 versus $15,000 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $12,687. About 27.1% of families and 29.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.2% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over.
Comfort is served by the Comfort Independent School District.
Notable people
    Jay Boy Adams – Texas musician, Fort Worth native who was reared in Colorado City, Texas, has also resided in Comfort.[16]
    W.S. Hall (born 1829) – Established first packing plant in Texas.[17]
    Betty Holekamp (1826-1902) – Texas pioneer, called the Betsy Ross of Texas.
    J. Marvin Hunter (1880–1957) – Early in the 20th century, the Texas journalist, historian, and author of the American West, published the Comfort Times, which he soon disbanded. Hunter later formed Frontier Times magazine and Frontier Times Museum in Bandera.[18]
    Catherine Caradja (1893 – 1993) – Celebrated Romanian aristocrat and philanthropist maintained a residence in Comfort [19]

Orange, Texas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orange, Texas
Water tower in Orange, Texas
Location of Orange, Texas
Coordinates: 30°6′33″N 93°45′33″WCoordinates: 30°6′33″N 93°45′33″W
Country     United StatesUnited States
State     TexasTexas
County     Orange
Community     1830 as Green’s Bluff[1]
Renamed     1840 as Madison[1]
County Seat     1852[1]
Incorporated     1858 as Orange[1]
Gentilic     Orangite
 • Type     Council-Manager
 • City Council     Mayor W. Brown Claybar
Theresa Adams Beauchamp
Jimmy Sims
Jeff Holland
Bill Mello
 • City Manager     Shawn Oubre
 • Total     20.8 sq mi (53.8 km2)
 • Land     20.1 sq mi (52.0 km2)
 • Water     0.7 sq mi (1.8 km2)
Elevation     7 ft (2 m)
Population (2000)
 • Total     18,643
 • Density     928.5/sq mi (358.5/km2)
Time zone     Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)     CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes     77630-77632
Area code(s)     409
FIPS code     48-54132[2]
GNIS feature ID     1375304[3]
Orange is a city in Orange County, Texas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,595. It is the county seat of Orange County[4], and is the easternmost city in Texas. Located on the Sabine River at the border with Louisiana, it is part of the Beaumont−Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Founded in 1836, it is a deep-water port to the Gulf of Mexico.
    1 Historical development
    2 Hurricane Ike
    3 Media
        3.1 Newspaper
    4 Geography
    5 Climate
    6 Demographics
        6.1 2000 Census data
    7 Government and infrastructure
    8 Education
    9 Culture
    10 Transportation
    11 Notable people
    12 References
    13 External links
Historical development
This community was originally called Green Bluff for a man named Reason Green, a Sabine River boatman who arrived at this location sometime before 1830. A short time later, in 1840, the town was renamed Madison in honor of President James Madison.[5] To resolve the frequent post office confusion with another Texas community called Madisonville, the town was renamed “Orange” in 1858. The area experienced rapid growth in the late 19th century due to 17 sawmills within the city limits, making Orange the center of the Texas lumber industry.[6] Orange’s growth led to the arrival of many immigrants in the late 19th century, including a moderately-sized Jewish population by 1896.[7] In 1898, the County built a courthouse in the city, which eventually burned down and was replaced by the Orange County Courthouse.
The harbor leading into the Port of Orange was dredged in 1914 to accommodate large ships. Ship building during World War I contributed to the growth in population and economy. The Great Depression, not surprisingly, affected the city negatively, and it was not until World War II that the local economy was boosted again. A U.S. Naval Station was installed and additional housing was provided for thousands of defense workers and servicemen and their families. The population increased to just over 60,000 residents.
After the war, the peace-time population decreased to about 25,000. At this time, the Navy Department announced it selected Orange as one of eight locations where it would store reserve vessels. The area of the shipyards provided a favorable location, as the Sabine River furnished an abundant supply of fresh water to prevent saltwater corrosion.[8]
Also during this period the local chemical plants expanded which boosted the economy. The chemical industry continues today as a leading source of revenue to the area. The U.S. Naval Station was changed to a Reserve base in December 1975, and decommissioned completely in September, 2008.
The Port of Orange became the home to the USS Orleck (DD-886), one of the few naval ships remaining that was built at the Orange shipyards during WWII. The city of Orange sustained a direct hit from Hurricane Rita in 2005, causing damage to the ship. The city made the ship be moved because it claimed the city needed the dock space. The Orleck was not allowed to return to the port due to politics (as the city council was wanting the ship cut up and sold for scrap and had a long running feud with the Restoration Association) so a new location was sought, including one in Arkansas and Lake Charles, Louisiana, for a new home. On May 6, 2009, the Lake Charles city council voted in favor of an ordinance authorizing the city to enter into a “Cooperative Endeavor Agreement” with the “USS ORLECK”. On May 20, 2010 the ship was moved to Lake Charles. The Grand Opening was on April 10, 2011.[9]
Hurricane Ike
Orange, Texas was heavily damaged by Hurricane Ike on September 13, 2008.[10] Damage was widespread and severe across Orange County. The 22-foot (6.7 m) storm surge breached the city’s levees, caused catastrophic flooding and obliterated everything in its path. The storm surge travelled up the Neches River to also flood Rose City.
Orange received winds at hurricane force. Nearly the entire city of 19,000 people was flooded, anywhere from 6 inches (15 cm) to 15 feet (4.5 m).[11] The mayor of the city said about 375 people, of those who stayed behind during the storm, began to emerge, some needing food, water and medical care.[11] Many dead fish littered streets and properties.[12] Neighbor Bridge City Mayor Kirk Roccaforte estimated that only 14 homes in the city were unaffected by the surge, five of which were in the Oakview addition on Louise Street in Bridge City. The piles of debris and waterlogged furniture placed outside homes by residents beginning to clean up led the mayor to say “The whole city looks like a flea market.[13] During the post-storm cleanup, Bridge City residents found swimming pools had been occupied by jellyfish brought inland with the water.[14] Three people were found dead in Orange County on September 29.[15]
The Orange Leader,
El Sol de Orange,
Orange is located at 30°6′33″N 93°45′33″W (30.109217, -93.759133)[16].
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 square miles (54 km2), of which, 20.1 square miles (52 km2) of it is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8 km2) of it (3.32%) is water.
Orange has a humid subtropical climate. Winters are warm and rainy while summers are hot, humid and wet. The climate is similar to nearby Vinton, Louisiana and Beaumont, Texas. The record high in Orange is 105°F recorded August 10, 1962. The record low is 11°F recorded December 26, 1983. Orange records about 60 inches of rain per year.
[hide]Climate data for Orange, Texas
Month     Jan     Feb     Mar     Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec     Year
Average high °F (°C)     60
(16)     64
(18)     71
(22)     77
(25)     84
(29)     89
(32)     91
(33)     92
(33)     87
(31)     80
(27)     70
(21)     63
(17)     77.3
Average low °F (°C)     40
(4)     43
(6)     50
(10)     56
(13)     64
(18)     70
(21)     72
(22)     72
(22)     67
(19)     57
(14)     48
(9)     42
(6)     56.8
Precipitation inches (mm)     6.01
(152.7)     3.74
(95)     3.90
(99.1)     3.61
(91.7)     5.70
(144.8)     6.21
(157.7)     5.34
(135.6)     4.65
(118.1)     5.60
(142.2)     4.56
(115.8)     4.62
(117.3)     5.22
(132.6)     59.16
Source: [17]
2000 Census data
As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 18,643 people, 7,310 households, and 5,021 families residing in the city. The population density was 928.5 people per square mile (358.5/km²). There were 8,364 housing units at an average density of 416.6 per square mile (160.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 60.59% White, 35.36% African American, 0.38% Native American, 1.17% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.08% from other races, and 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.62% of the population.
There were 7,310 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.3% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01.
Historical population
Census     Pop.         %±
1860     936         

1890     3,173         

1900     3,835         20.9%
1910     5,527         44.1%
1920     9,212         66.7%
1930     7,913         −14.1%
1940     7,472         −5.6%
1950     21,174         183.4%
1960     25,605         20.9%
1970     24,457         −4.5%
1980     23,628         −3.4%
1990     19,381         −18.0%
2000     18,643         −3.8%
Est. 2009     19,616         
In the city the population was 27.4% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,519, and the median income for a family was $37,473. Males had a median income of $37,238 versus $21,445 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,535. About 20.5% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.0% of those under age 18 and 16.0% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates the Orange District Parole Office in Orange.[18]
The United States Postal Service operates the Orange Post Office in Orange.[19]
The city operates under the council-manager form of government.
The City of Orange is served by the West Orange-Cove Consolidated Independent School District, the Little Cypress-Mauriceville Consolidated Independent School District, Orangefield Independent School District and Lamar State College-Orange.
The City of Orange hosts several cultural and historical attractions. The Stark Museum of Art, houses one of the finest collections of 19th and 20th century Western American art and artifacts in the country. The collection focuses on the stunning land, dramatic people, and diverse wildlife of the American West. The Museum also holds a significant collection of American Indian art as well as collections of glass and porcelain, and rare books and manuscripts. The museum features the work of artists such as artist/naturalist John James Audubon, Paul Kane, Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran, and John Mix Stanley.[20]
The W.H. Stark House preserves the early days of Orange and lumber barons.
The W. H. Stark House is a careful restoration of an 1894 Victorian home, typical of a wealthy Southeast Texas family. The 15-room, three-storied structure with its many gables, galleries, and distinctive windowed turret, shows the influence of several architectural styles.
The First Presbyterian Church on Green Avenue is a strong example of the classic Greek Revival architecture. Completed in 1912, it was the first air-conditioned public building west of the Mississippi River and its dome is the only opalescent glass dome inside of the United States.
Orange Community Players is a non-profit community theater located across the street from the historic courthouse and walking distance to the new riverfront park. Enjoy Southeast Texas’ brightest stars, powerful stage performances, and unforgettable evenings of entertainment. Orange Community Players brings the community together through performance, creativity, and a passion for the arts and artists of Southeast Texas.
Orange is served by Interstate 10, as well as a deep-water seaport. Commercial aviation service is located at nearby Southeast Texas Regional Airport, and general aviation service is provided by Orange County Airport.
Orange has the distinction of having Exit 880 on Interstate 10 within its city limits, which is the highest numbered exit and mile marker on an interstate highway or freeway in North America. The area code is 409.
Notable people
    Janette Sebring Lowrey – Author of The Poky Little Puppy
    Marcia Ball
    Michael Berry (radio host)
    Clarence “Gatemouth” Brown
    Matt Bryant
    Clyde D. Eddleman
    Frances Fisher
    Greg Hill (cornerback)
    Bobby Kimball
    Danny Klam
    Chuck Knipp – voice of Shirley Q. Liquor
    Jason Mathews
    Kay Panabaker
    John Patterson (pitcher)
    Bum Phillips
    Wade Phillips
    R.C. Slocum
    Bubba Smith
    Kevin Smith (cornerback)
    Jean A. Stuntz
    Earl Thomas
    Liz Wickersham
    Chandra Smith (Toddlers and Tiaras)